Plumbing / Pipe Fitting Sales, Service, Installation, Maintenance & Repair
There are three types of piping: hot supply, cold supply and waste.
The supply system is the network of piping that distributes hot and cold water which is under pressure from anywhere up to 160 pounds per square inch (usual standard for city water mane supply). The materials and sizes allowable are stringently defined by code.
Supply pipe sizes are a function of demand, friction and pressure. Each fixture group in your home or business has different recommended fixture unit amounts used when calculating the sizing requirements. Fixture group can refer to kitchen sink, lavatory, shower stall, dishwasher, and so on.
Both horizontal and vertical runs of supply and waste piping are required to be supported against gravity per code standards. Diameter and material of the piping determines the maximum allowable spacing between supports. The waste system is the arrangement of piping that delivers used water from the home or facility to either the municipal or private sewage systems. A pipe that drains away waste is simply referred to as a drain / drain pipe. A fixture's rate of discharge determines the minimum diameter of the drain to be used. Fixture drains must also be "trapped" (traps allow water to pass freely and helps to block noxious sewer gasses).
The vent system is the piping that admits air into the overall system. The vent system usually terminates in the open air / on the roof of a structure, to keep sewer gas as far away as possible from the structure.
The sizing requirements of drain pipes are based on expected maximum rates of flow, measured in DFU’s (drainage fixture units). One DFU equals one cubic foot of water per minute. Running drain piping involves four principal issues: direction changes, slope, clean outs and physical protection. Drain pipes are required to slope between 1/8 and 1.2 inch per foot for optimal drainage. Direction changes are important: Using the correct fittings to achieve this creats a smooth flow and prevent discharge drainage from transferring. Clean outs will enable blockages to be cleared from the system once in operation. Protection by bedding in sand or fine gravel is recommended, so that rough backfill or other exterior factors will not damage the piping.
- Copper Pipe/Tubing
- Polyethylene (PE)
- Cross-Linked Polyethylene (PEX)
- PEX supply fitting
- Galvanized Steel
Drain Waste and Vent System (DWV System)
Instead of relying on water pressure, this system relies on gravity to make its mixture of solids and liquids flow. Running and sizing drainpipe for this application is subject to strict rules.